INSTITUTO DE MONTAÑA NEWS
12/28/2020: The Mountain Institute Transitions to Instituto de Montaña (Peru)After nearly a half century protecting critical mountain ecosystems and promoting prosperous livelihoods to create resilient mountain communities, The Mountain Institute (TMI) is concluding its role as a U.S.-based nonprofit organization. However, its main operations, online platforms, key programs and legacy continue and are now embedded into its former Andes Program—Instituto de Montaña. This transition is the culmination of a process begun several years ago. More details in this press release.
TMI News Archive – 4/2016 to 4/2020
4/14/2020: “Knowledge Dialogues and Climate Change: Integrating Participatory Approaches in the Design of Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Measures in the Peruvian Andes.”This book chapter by Florencia Zapata and Erin Gleeson of TMI’s Scaling Up Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation Program has been published in a new book by Springer: “Climate Change, Hazards and Adaptation Options: Handling the Impacts of a Changing Climate.” This highly international book covers many countries and describes in detail research and projects on climate change risks and hazards. It addresses the issue of climate change risks and hazards holistically, presenting studies and research findings and offering a catalogue of potential adaptation options that can be explored. It also includes case studies providing illustrative and inspiring examples of how we can adapt to a changing climate. A preview of the chapter that highlights our Mt EbA-Peru project is available on the book’s homepage via the link above.
12/3-13/2019: Scaling Up Mountain EbA Program at COP25 Madrid, SpainMirella Gallardo and Jaymee Silva represented TMI’s Scaling Up Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation (Mt EbA) Program at the United Nations Climate Summit in Madrid. As panelists and presenters, TMI staff joined with partners including IUCN, ICIMOD, CIP, IIED and OIKOS to keep mountain issues at the forefront. An informational booth and side events surrounding International Mountain Day were main highlights. Link to video shown at our COP25 booth. Link to Mt EbA brochure distributed at COP25 here.
11/5/2019: Scaling up Mountain EbA-Peru project in “II Symposium on Restoring Amazon, Andean and Coastal Forest Ecosystems” held at ESAN University, Lima PeruMirella Gallardo, Mt EbA-Peru Project Coordinator participated in this symposium organized by the National Forest and Wildlife Service (SERFOR) . Her presentation covered how an Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) approach is an effective strategy for restoring mountain ecosystems and adapting to climate change. More about our Mountain EbA Program here.
10/14/2019: III Congress of Latin American and Caribbean Natural Protected Areas, Lima, PeruMirella Gallardo and Florencia Zapata of TMI-Andes and Karen Podvin of IUCN-South represented our Scaling Up Mountain EbA Program. Their presentations were based on experience in the Nor Yauyos Cochas Landscape Reserve of Peru and covered climate change adaptation, solutions based on nature and traditional/indigenous knowledge, and the restoration of ancient water technologies in high mountains. More about Mt EbA-Peru here.
8/24—9/7/2019: Climate Change Course II, Lima, PeruRepresentatives of The Mountain Institute and IUCN-South taught aspects of Ecosystem Based Adaptation (AbE), including tools for monitoring and evaluating of climate change adaptation. Students from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, National University of San Marcos participated in this Climate Change course. This project is implemented in Peru in collaboration with the National Protected Areas Service (SERNANP), the Nor Yauyos Cochas Landscape Reserve, and the Ministry of Environment of Peru. More about Mountain EbA here.
8/12/2019: Mountain EbA Presentation at the XVII SEPIA – Permanent Seminar on Agricultural Research, Puno, PeruSince 1985, SEPIA has promoted research and decentralized debate on rural, agricultural and environmental issues from a multidisciplinary and diversified perspective. Florencia Zapata, from TMI-Andes presented a recent paper: “Dialogues of knowledge and climate change: Integrating participatory approaches and Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Peruvian Andes.” More about Mountain EbA-Peru here.
7/15/19: Retracing the 1802 Expedition of Alexander von Humboldt in Northern PeruA cross-cultural, interdisciplinary team will explore and study a remote region of northern Peru first visited by the legendary scientist and explorer. Led by TMI Andes Program Director, Dr. Jorge Recharte and TMI Senior Fellow, Sandra Nichols, this expedition is part of a larger effort to draw attention to a remote Andes-Amazonian region that is one of the world’s biological and archaeological hotspots.
6/15/2019: 5th EbA Knowledge Day, Bonn, GermanyThis annual event was organized by GIZ, IUCN and IIED, to bring together policy makers, professionals, researchers and donors working on issues related to climate adaptation, ecosystem management and human resilience. The main objective of the event was to share knowledge about approaches to strengthening Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in national and international policy frameworks. Scaling Up Mountain EbA Program staff from both TMI and IUCN participated. More about Mountain EbA here.
6/13/2019: Field Study on Geo-Ecological Systems in the communities of Tomas and Miraflores, Nor Yauyos Cochas Landscape Reserve, Peru.Research on how the impacts of land use change and climate change are changing how the Puna and mountain geo-ecosystems function was led by the University of Amsterdam in cooperation with TMI-Andes. This research project is part of the master’s course “Field Study of Geo-Ecological Systems.” Field research focused on the sub-basins of Tomas and Miraflores, where the communities, the Mountain Institute and the Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve implement the Scaling Up Mountain EbA projects. More about Mountain EbA-Peru here.
6/13/2019: Virtual Course, “Nature-based Solutions for Sustainable and Resilient Development,” Bio Bio, ChileThe course’s Module II covered Ecosystem-based Adaptation. Professionals from Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru shared their experiences in working with this methodology in their respective countries. This course was organized by TMI-Andes and our IUCN partner, the Ministry of Environment of Chile and the Regional Ministry of Environment, Biobío region of Chile. More about Mountain EbA-Colombia here.
4/16/19: “Advances in Developing Peru’s National Policy for Glaciers and Mountain Ecosystems”Dr. Jorge Recharte, Director of TMI’s Andes Program is quoted in this article published on GlacierHub. According to Recharte, “Peru is a cradle…of several civilizations centered on issues [within the] mountains. The concept of mountains has a deep historical value in Peru [and] Peru needs to generate a mountain policy [that]… has to do with values of the country and has to do with the identity of the nation.”
4/1/19: “Nature-based solutions in practice: the example of the Name Nichu watershed in Bhutan”This article profiles recent advances in our six-country Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation Program, made by IUCN, our implementing partner for Bhutan.
2/20/19: “Back-to-the-Future Solutions” – new photo story about our award-winning RETAMA initiative in the Peruvian Andes.RETAMA is the Spanish acronym for “Restoring Ancestral Technologies and Water Management.” This initiative builds upon our USAID-funded projects in Peru’s Ancash province and on Mountain Ecosystem-based Adapations projects in the Nor Yauyos Cochas Landscape Reserve. RETAMA won the 2018 St Andrews Prize for the Environment.
1/28/19: “Indigenous Communities Model How to Adapt to Climate Change” by TMI’s Jorge Recharte–feature article in Senior Hiker Magazine.This is an expanded and updated version of Recharte’s op-ed that was first published in the World Post/Washington Post in December, 2017.
1/26/19: TMI Senior Fellow Dr. Jeremy Spoon, Richard Arnold and collaborators to accept the 2019 Robert A. and Beverly H. Hackenberg Prize at the Society for Applied Anthropolgy’s annual meeting in Portland, OR.Jeremy Spoon, Richard Arnold and their collaborators will present the results of their decade-long Numic Project on Thursday, March 21st in Portland as part of the Hackenberg Distinguished Lecture series. Their presentation is entitled, “Revitalizing Numic Homelands: Blending Culture and Collaboration in the Great Basin and Upper Mohave Deserts.”
1/25/19: “An integrated community and ecosystem-based approach to disaster risk reduction in mountain systems.”Congratulations to our associate, Julia Klein and to TMI Senior Fellow, Meeta Pradhan, TMI former Executive Director, Andrew Taber and all authors for their article just published in Science Direct, Environmental Science and Policy.
1/24/19: TMI Receives Acknowledgement from Nepal Minister of Forests and Environment.TMI was honored to receive this recognition from Minister Shakti Basnet for our Himalayan Program’s contribution to tourism development in the Ganesh Himal Area, specifically our work on the Ruby Valley Trail. The Celebration was held in Kathmandu and organized by the Ganesh Himal Tourism Development Committee and the Nepal Tourism Board.
1/17/19: “TMI’s Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Program Recognized as “2019 Outstanding Practice in Agroecology”The World Future Council has just announced that our MAPs Program was among the 15 winning practices from the global South. These outstanding projects were chosen from 77 nominations from 44 countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America.
1/16/19: TMI Solution Search initiative included in RARE’s new report, “Farming for Biodiversity: Proven Solutions Meet Global Policy.”This report is based on an in-depth analysis of the proven solutions submitted under the 2017 Solution Search contest. It responds to the accelerating loss of biodiversity globally, while also identifying the common success factors that allow for replication, and a blueprint for scaling the adoption of sustainable behaviors needed to protect biodiversity globally. See our winning Andes initiative on pg 10 and 19.
1/2/19: “Climate Change is Bad for Peru’s Pastures…But There’s a 1,200-Year-Old Fix”National Public Radio’s coverage of our award-winning initiative in the Peruvian Andes to help remote mountain communities restore ancient water management systems built by their ancestors. A great insight into our work in Miraflores and Canchayllo that won the 2017 Solution Search award (Water Impact category) and The St Andrews Prize for the Environment.
12/11/18: “Mountain Communities Show the Way Forward.”Our appeal on International Mountain Day.
11/22/18: “A rockfall-induced glacial lake outburst flood, Upper Barun Valley, Nepal”
11/18/18: “Committed to Biodiversity” presented by the International Climate Initiative (IKI)
11/1/18: “When a Melting Glacier is Seen as the Apocalypse”Article by Jean Chemnick, reporter for E&E News, posted on ClimateWire. TMI Andes Program director, Dr. Jorge Recharte is quoted and was interviewed for background info.
10/4/18: “A Recent UN Declaration Offers Recognition of Human Rights in Rural Areas“Article featured on Glacier Hub. TMI Andes Program director, Dr. Jorge Recharte was quoted and interviewed for background.
10/1/18: The Himalayan Times “Cultivation of MAPs – Sustainable way forward.”Article by TMI Himalayan Program staff, Karma Bhutia and Ichchha Thapa featured in The Himalayan Times, Nepal.
9/25/18: “Depopulation of the Puna: effects of climate change and other factors”.TMI’s Eyner Alata, Beatriz Fuentealba and Jorge Recharte are authors of this article published in Kawsaypacha. It is based on field studies conducted in the Cordillera Blanca communities of Canrey Grande and Los Andes Recuay. This publication is part of our Punas Aguas III initiative in the high Andes of Peru. (Article is in Spanish but the abstract section is also in English.)
9/21/18: IDL radio Interview with TMI Andes Program director, Dr. Jorge RecharteLink to video of an extensive interview with Dr. Recharte on the “No Hay Derecho” program hosted by Glatzer Tuesta. Lima, Peru.
9/11/18: “As Andean Glaciers Retreat, So Does Regional Security.”Article by Kate Cullen posted on the Wilson Center’s Environmental Change and Security Program’s “New Security Beat.” TMI Andes Program director, Dr. Jorge Recharte, interviewed for background perspective and quoted.
9/10/18: “Solutions in Focus: Ecosystem-Based Adaptation from Mountains to Oceans – How people adapt to climate change by using nature.”A new GIZ publication features our “Restoring Ancient Water Management Systems” project in Peru. The 30 solutions profiled aim to inspire policy and decision makers as well as project developers, showing that EbA has ‘many faces’ and is being implemented successfully by a broad range of actors and organizations.
8/12/18: Our “Securing Mountain Water and Livelihoods” initiative featured in recent USAID case study.The USAID publication: “Maintaining Water Security in Peru through Green Infrastructure” highlights three recent projects piloting a range of EbA and hybrid adaptation activities that generated notable results and contributed to the design and implementation of EbA approaches. More about our SMW&L initiative here.
7/16/18: New publication – Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) program brochure.Our Himalayan Program has just released it’s latest brochure for the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants program in Nepal. TMI’s been improving livelihoods in Nepal’s remote mountain communities since 2001. More than 18,000 highland farmers trained–40% are women. Conservation, cultivation and resilience in 100+ mountain villages!
6/27/18: “4 Andean Cities Adapting to Glacier Retreat to Preserve Water Security.”Article by Kate Cullen published in The City Fix – World Resources Institute/Ross Center. TMI Andes Program Director, Dr. Jorge Recharte quoted: “One of the main strategies to secure water supply is to protect mountain ecosystems that regulate water flow. In the case of Peru, there is growing awareness of this challenge.”
5/31/18: The Mountain Institute’s Peak News for May.We’ve won the 2018 St Andrews Prize for the Environment! Our Himalayan Program is partnering on a snow leopard project that has just been awarded a Darwin Initiative grant. And the global Mountain EbA team completed it’s first meeting in Peru. Read all about these highlights in the latest issue of Peak News!
5/22/18: Darwin Initiative grant just awarded to the Snow Leopard Conservancy for the “Sustaining snow leopard conservation through strengthened local institutions and enterprises” project. TMI is a proud partner in this project!According to Dr. Rodney Jackson, SLC Director and TMI Senior Fellow, “Nepal is adopting the new Federal Constitution aimed at devolving more powers to the local municipality level, thereby giving local communities a greater role in biodiversity conservation. The Darwin Initiative support comes at the perfect time, enabling the Snow Leopard Conservancy and partners to greatly expand important grassroots, community-driven actions benefitting snow leopards in 2 of Nepal’s most important mountain protected areas.”
4/25/18: The Mountain Institute is honored to receive the 2018 St Andrews Prize for the Environment!Our “Restoring Ancient Water Technologies” project (central Andes, Peru) has received the $100K prize. This is a recognition of how urgent it is to find solutions that secure mountain peoples’ water and livelihoods. And the importance of developing solutions that are deeply rooted in local cultures. TMI-A (Link here to short video of announcement and interview with Dr. Recharte.)
4/23/18: Scaling Up Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Program – Global team meets in Lima, Peru.The Mountain EbA staff from TMI and IUCN representing Nepal, Peru, Uganda, Bhutan, Kenya and Colombia are meeting in Lima. This is a rare opportunity for all countries to collaborate face-to-face as they plan and implement EbA measures in specific mountain areas and inform policy in others. (link to Spanish-language article.)
4/13/18: International Climate Initiative (IKI) interview with TMI Executive Director, Dr. Andrew Taber.In this interview, “Saving the world one mountain village at a time!” Dr. Taber explains the importance of adapting to climate change in mountain regions. “By combining traditional knowledge with the latest science we can better protect the world’s mountains.”
3/30/18: March issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS.We are a finalist! Our “Restoring Ancient Water Technologies” project in Peru is one of three finalists for the 2018 St Andrews Prize for the Environment! This year, 190 entries were received from around the world. The winner will be awarded $100,000 and the two runners up will each receive $25,000.
3/26/18: TMI project named as finalists for the 2018 St Andrews Prize.Our “Restoring Ancient Water Technologies” project in Peru has been selected as one of three finalists for this year’s prestigious St Andrews Prize for the Environment. This year, 190 entries were received from around the world. The winner will be awarded $100,000 and the two runners up will each receive $25,000.
2/27/18: February issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS.Featured in this issue: how TMI is helping mountain communities adapt to climate change and our upcoming Mountain EbA team meeting in Peru.
1/29/18: January issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS.From meetings with mountain communities in Nepal to new ecotourism options on the Great Inca Trail in Peru, this month’s PEAK NEWS gives quick updates on field projects in the Himalayas and Andes mountains. TMI-HQ
1/8/18: Peru’s alpine herders revive ancient technologies to face the future.
12/27/17: December issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS.An award winning year for TMI! The latest news from our Himalayas, Andes and Mountain EbA programs. TMI-HQ.
12/11/17: Make a Difference on Mountain Day!
12/6/17: Dr. Jorge Recharte’s Op-Ed published in the Washington Post, “These indigenous communities are models for how to adapt to climate change.”Mountain villages are preparing for a future without glaciers. Dr. Recharte’s op-ed features two TMI initiatives in the central Andes of Peru and showcases indigenous mountain communities’ innovative adaptations to climate change. TMI-Andes
12/4/17: Páramo Conservation and Innovation Platform Wins “2017 Cultura del Agua” Award.The Ministry of Agriculture and National Water Authority (ANA) of Peru recently recognized the Páramo Conservation and Innovation Platform as a national example of best practices in community-based conservation of water-regulating ecosystems. The platform was developed as a result of TMI’s technical support. It has grown from three grassroots conservation groups in 2014 to include 20 organizations in 2017. TMI-Andes.
11/29/17: TMI Senior Fellow Dr. Johan Reinhard to receive the Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal.Anthropologist, archaeologist and Mountain Institute Senior Fellow, Dr. Johan Reinhard has been selected for remarkable service in the conservation of culture and nature in mountainous regions. The award will be presented at the Mountain Museum in Pokhara, Nepal, on December 11 (International Mountain Day) during Nepal’s annual Mountain Festival. TMI-Himalayas.
11/27/17: November Issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS.The latest news from our Himalayas, Andes, Mountain EbA and Mountain Advocacy programs. TMI-HQ.
11/17/17: The Mountain Institute wins “Water Impact” Award in Solution Search “Farming for Biodiversity” Contest.At the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bonn, Germany (COP23) the global Solution Search contest named TMI’s Ancestral Technologies and Climate Change initiative as the winner in the “Water Impact” category. Full press release and photos at link above. TMI-Andes.
11/3/17: TMI Presentations and Mountain-related Events at United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bonn, Germany–COP23.TMI Executive Director, Andrew Taber and Florencia Zapata, Deputy Director of Institutional Development for our Andes Program will represent TMI at COP23 key events. TMI-HQ.
10/31/17: October Issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS.The latest news from our Himalayas, Andes, Mountain EbA and Mountain Advocacy programs. TMI-HQ.
10/26/17: Announcing Training Workshop at Mountain Partnership Global Meeting in Rome on December 14 and 15: “Mainstreaming EbA into Development Planning”In cooperation with IUCN, TMI will offer a training course developed by GIZ to help participants become familiar with the latest international political and conceptual discussions on Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) mainstreaming issues. The workshop will provide an overview on the basic steps of the EbA mainstreaming cycle and will focus specifically on mountain ecosystems. Application for Mountain Partnership members here. TMI-MtEbA.
9/26/17: September Issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS.Our monthly updates including TMI’s new Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Program plus info on Mountain EbA project sites in Nepal and Peru. TMI-HQ
9/25/17: The Mountain Institute Announces New Program and New Logo.We are proud to announce the launch of our new Mountain Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) Program. This three-year initiative will expand the use of nature-based solutions in key mountain areas of Nepal, Peru and Uganda and will encourage the adoption of the EbA approach in neighboring Bhutan, Kenya and Colombia. TMI leads this new program and is implementing it jointly with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). TMI-HQ
8/1/17: August Issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS.
From medicinal plants to snow leopards, awards, articles and inaugurations – there are lots of updates to share. TMI-HQ
7/18/17: Inauguration of Bioremediation System, Shallap-Huapish-Toclla canal – Ancash Region, Peru.This efficient bioremediation system of ponds and artificial wetlands combines the best of traditional knowledge and modern science to greatly reduce mineral levels in the water flowing through the canal. This pilot project of The Mountain Institute’s Andes Program benefits over 2,000 people who use the canal water for drinking and irrigating crops in Campanayoc, Macashca, Quinchu, Pukaventana, Queral, Rataquenua and Los Pinos, among other sectors. TMI Andes
7/16/17: TMI Himalayan Program initiates Citizen Scientist Approach to Restore Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) in the Wild.The biodiversity monitoring component of our MAPs Program is getting a boost thanks to a new collaboration with Kathmandu College of Forestry which is affiliated with Tribhuvan University. TMI Himalayas
7/13/17: “Help Wanted: Vulnerable mountains with communities mired in poverty need more champions”Article in The Straits Times, by Nirmal Gosh. TMI Executive Director quoted along with studies by The Mountain Partnership/FAO. TMI HQ
7/5/17: Our Ancestral Technologies and Climate Change Project has been selected as “one of the 10 best Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) practices in the Latin American and Caribbean region.”
This regional contest is convened by UN Environment – REGATTA and Practical Action with the objective of documenting and disseminating stories of successful implementation of EbA technologies and practices. The award includes publication of our project case study in an upcoming book, “Evidence on Ecosystem-based Adaptation: Cases in Latin America and the Caribbean” and a bi-lingual webinar showcasing EbA regional projects. We will also be recognized by the United Nations Environment Programme – Regatta. Our project focused on the communities of Miraflores and Canchayllo in the Nor Yauyos Cochas Reserve, Peruvian Andes. TMI Andes
7/4/17: Himalayan Program staff members attending IPROMO Summer Course in Italy.Umesh Basnet and Ichchha Thapa, Program Officers with our Himalayan Program, are part of the IPROMO Summer Course in Ormea, Italy focused on “Environmental and economic issues to enhance mountain sustainability.” The course includes lectures, seminars, group work and field trips on a range of issues–natural resources, watershed and soils management, disaster risk reduction, climate change, economic development, mountain forestry and governance. IPROMO lecturers come from the United Nations, universities, international organizations and NGOs. TMI Himalayas
7/1/17: First issue of The Mountain Institute’s PEAK NEWS!We’re launching a monthly e-blast to keep subscribers, followers, partners and donors up to date. E-mailed, posted and shared on the first of each month, PEAK NEWS gives brief highlights and links to our Institute’s work in the Andes, Himalayas and Western USA. Subscribe at the bottom of this page! TMI HQ
6/27/17: “Time lag between glacial retreat and upward migration alters tropical alpine communities” research article by Anaïs Zimmer and colleagues published in ELSEVIER – Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.Lead author, Anais Zimmer is TMI’s Specialist in Natural Resources, Agronomy and Climate Change working with our Andes Program in Peru. Her article details findings from studies on how plant communities migrate upward as glaciers retreat. TMI Andes
6/16/17: TMI’s Ancestral Technologies and Climate Change Project Named a Top Ten Finalist in 2017 Solution Search Contest, “Farming for Biodiversity.”This contest is a unique effort to identify and celebrate innovative agriculture solutions that strengthen biodiversity and its benefits to food security, livelihoods and nutrition. The grand prize winner will receive $30,000. Voting extended to July 11th. TMI Andes
6/15/17: Photo Story – 80,000 Trees – One by One!The Mountain Institute has joined forces with the European Outdoor Conservation Association’s (EOCA) 2 Million Trees Project in a reforesting project in remote mountain areas of Nepal. In partnership with local communities, we’ll be planting 80,000 native and locally grown trees in Gorkha, Dhading and Sankhuwasabha districts. TMI Himalayas
4/7/17: The Mountain Institute Supports Launch of New Non-Profit.The Mountain Institute (TMI) is pleased to announce that its environmental education program based in the Appalachian Mountains will become a separate non-profit entity—Experience Learning. This new 501(c)3 organization was established by three of The Mountain Institute’s original founders and will be based in West Virginia. TMI HQ
2/6/17: Statement Presented During the 55th Commission for Social Development at the United Nations in NYC.TMI’s oral statement on behalf of the Mountain Partnership called for a permanent, official UN entity be created to ensure that mountain stakeholders have a voice in implementing UN processes and the 2030 Agenda. TMI HQ
1/9/17: Photo Story – Life After the Nepal Quakes: Inequality, Rapid Change and Slow Progress.
Since November 2015, The Nepal Critical Transitions Project has been conducting research in Gorkha and Rasuwa Districts of Nepal to learn about the key social and cultural factors that shape the recovery from the 2015 natural disasters. Lessons learned will be shared with the government and aid agencies so that they can better understand local needs and communicate more effectively with local communities. Senior Fellow, Dr. Jeremy Spoon and TMI Himalayas